Web References


  1. Related Thesis
  2. Related Reports
  3. History
  4. Past Projects
  5. Current Projects
  6. Current Research Teams

Related Thesis

ASI Software-Ergonomie Studien- und Diplomarbeiten
Thomas Dietinger Object-Oriented Implementation of a Multiprotocol Hyper-G Client for Ms-Windows 1995
Harald Weinreich Ergonomie von Hypertext-Systemen und das World Wide Web

Software-Ergonomie und das World Wide Web: 10 wichtige Leitlinien für die Gestaltung von ergonomischen WWW-Informationssystemen

Jill Walker hypertextual criticism - comparative readings of three web hypertexts about literature and film, University of Bergen 11/1998
Stefan Kinkartz Die Entstehung des ARPANET und seiner Protokolle bis 1972 6/1998
Standardisierung in der Computerkommunikation: Vom ARPANET zum Internet 12/1998
Sigrid Bumann
Sandi Bilinski
Lost in History – Entwicklung von Strategien zur Minimierung der Orientierungs- und Navigationsschwierigkeiten in besuchten WWW-Seiten 09/1998
Gerald Singelmann Über das Strukturieren von Hypertext – Grundlagen für eine softwareseitige Unterstützung des Autors 12/1999
Michael McGuffin Fitts' Law and Expanding Targets: An Experimental Study, and Applications to User Interface Design 2002
Matthias Svoboda Die Entwicklung der Desktop-Metapher 9/2003
Martin Tomitsch Trends and Evolution of Window Interfaces 12/2003

Related Reports and Articles

Andreas Ehrencrona Coping with the Web Interface - Guidelines for Web Applications
Leslie Carr, Wendy Hall, and David De Roure The Evolution of Hypertext Link Services
On the Expressiveness of Links in Hypertext Systems
Richard Gaskin Beyond the Browser: Rediscovering the Role of the Desktop in a Net-centric World (containes also many Web references)
Jared White The Commercial Feasibility of a Next-Generation User Interface, May 27, 2002
Alan Blackwell Alan Blackwell’s Publications
John Kheit The Devil's Advocate - Mac UI Ain't All That: The Future & History of the User Interface (with Snazzy New UI Videos), August 15th, 2006


The Computer Museum History Center
Mind Machine Museum ...computers...calculators...computer-related games...related artifacts...
DigiBarn Computer Museum
RWTH Aachen
Lehrstuhl für Geschichte der Technik

Michael Friedewald

Robert X. Cringely
Robert Cailliau

Past Projects

Vannevar Bush Memex As We May Think. The Atlantic Monthly. July 1945.

"As We May Think"

A Celebration of Vannevar Bush's 1945 Vision,
An Examination of What Has Been Accomplished, and What Remains to Be Done


Sutherland Sketchpad [Sutherland 63a]
Xerox Parc

Butler W. Lampson

David Curbow

Alto Xerox Alto Computer 30th Anniversary on slashdot
Marking the PC's 30th, Xerox Scientists broke new ground creating Alto by John Markoff New York Times in Mercury News 4/10/2003

The Xerox Alto Archiv (screenshots and manuals)
altogether: a Xerox Alto simulator
Google Search on "Xerox Alto Workstations"

Star 8010 Bruce Damer's history of the Xerox Alto, Star, Elixir desktops
The final live demonstration of the Xerox 'Star' computer, 1981
mirror: The Final Demonstration of the Xerox 'Star' computer

HCI Review of the Xerox Star

Historical Documents of the Star by David Curbow

Bravo “Intentional Programming” A Talk With Charles Simonyi

Nicholas Negroponte

Spatial Data Management System (SDMS)

Dataland (Alan Kay in Bonn 2001)

Dear Ben Davis (email from Kirsten Wagner)

Kirsten Wagner: Informations- und Wissensorganisation anhand räumlicher Ordnungsmodelle: Das Spatial Data-Management System der Architecture Machine Group als Fallbeispiel in Wolkenkuckucksheim

Apple Apple Museum

The Apple Online Museum

Apple Computer Inc. Records


Macintosh System 1 to 4.2 Screenshots
Symbolics Document Examiner/ Concordia Symbolics Document Examiner
Lisp Machine Museum
Screen Shots from the Symbolics Document Examiner
Concordia (Screenshots)

An Environment for Creating, Maintaining and Distributing Very Large Documentation Sets with Very Long Life Cycles

Publications by Walker, Janet H.

Janet H. Walker on Concordia (mail)

Current Projects: CLIM

Taligent Taligent - Component Nirvana

TALIGENT, a joint-venture between IBM, Apple and Hewlett-Packard was founded in March 1992 with this precise problem in mind. The mantra went "object-orientation". After everything from pop-up menus to games started getting that epithet, the concept got renamed to "component software" and "document-centric computing". Taligent's idea was to produce an operating system that could enable programs to be built up of small, interchangeable parts.

Taligent - Software Patent Policy

Taligent, as an example, is a new, founded in 1992, small, starting with 170 employees -- we now have 350 employees and by the end of this year will have 450 employees -- innovative, high-tech, high-risk venture. We're going into an extremely competitive marketplace, we're going to have an object-oriented operating environment that will compete with Microsoft's offerings, clearly the dominant player in a lot of competition in the area.

Taligent to Become IBM Subsidiary (Apple Press Release December 19, 1995)

The Taligent transition into IBM is complete – Taligent, the former IBM subsidiary, has been officially dissolved.


David Curbow

OpenDoc Document Management: Andy Reinhardt: Managing the New Document. BYTE (8)1994

OpenDoc by Luca Deri 1996

Apple “Legacy Services”: OpenDoc Developer Documentation

IBM: OpenDoc for free

Interview with David Curbow, a lead human interface designer for OpenDoc

Frank Ludolph
Don Gentner
HotJava Views(TM)


HotJava Views(TM) White paper

The Webtop for the Knowledge Worker (JavaOne ’97)

Java Technology Enterprise Solution

Don Gentner,Frank Ludolph. The Webtop for the KnowledgeWorker. Sun Microsystems,Inc. JavaOne 98

IBM, Lotus, Oracle and SUN announce plans for joint development of Java-based desktop specification

Current Projects

Ted Nelson Project Xanadu



Abora Hypertext System

Literary Machines 93.1 (by Ted Nelson)

The Future of Information (1997 by Ted Nelson)

Xanadu Secrets Become Udanax Open-Source

Xanadu report (24-Aug-99)

Last night, at the O'Reilly Open Source conference in Monterey, Ted Nelson and his team demonstrated and shipped Xanadu, the fabled hypertext system that inspired the World Wide Web. It was a remarkable and strange moment. …

Ted Nelson, Project Xanadu and xanalogical studies with a special focus on the incorporated copyright issues. Merz Akademie, 2002

Ted Nelson on PDF (email)

Ted Nelson on “Interface” (email)


abora.org - links

Alan Kay Smalltalk.org

Squeak Smalltalk

Alan Kay short bio

Alan Kay lecture notes (11/2/98 at MIT)

Alan Kay joins HP Labs (Dec 2002)

e-mail correspondence with Alan


CLIM Common Lisp Interface Manager

CLIM Specification
CLIM and the Web

by Ralf Möller:
User Interface Management Systems: The CLIM Perspective
CLIM Example Programs
Screen Shots from the CLIM Example Programs

Past Projects: Symbolics Document Examiner

Andy Hertzfeld
Guy Tribble
Mike Boich
Eazel Apple alums develop Linux interface

Mike Boich, Bud Tribble and Andy Hertzfeld, all of whom played an important role in developing the revolutionary Macintosh user interface, will debut the first product to come out of their new firm, Eazel, this Tuesday at the LinuxWorld Conference & Expo in San Jose.

What will make a desktop Linux? Interface, interface, interface.

Eazel is developing Nautilus, GNOME's next-generation file manager. Nautilus is to the GNOME environment what the Finder is to the Mac and IE has become to Windows. It's good that Eazel, of all companies, is working on this, since it's staffed by many of the people who are responsible for the Mac's original human interface.

Google Search: "Andy Hertzfeld"

BeOpen Interview with Andy Hertzfeld of Eazel (June 15, 2000)

Instead of dumbing down or putting an updated Macintosh face on the Linux OS, Hertzfeld says the central theme of Eazel is to improve the three way relationship between man, machine and the network at large.

"Usability is about more than the graphic user interface," he says. "It's about building a continuous flow of knowledge that can explain to the user how the system and its various pieces are reconciled."

Screen Wars (Newsweek, Dec 11, 2000)

Ben Shneiderman HCIL
Implementing a Zooming User Interface: Experience Building Pad++
Bruce Horn iFile Xerox, Apple and Progress

Bruce Horn's Recollections

Metadata-Findererweiterung von Bruce Horn. (MacGuardians, 10.Aug 2002)

Discussion on iFile (macnn, July 2002)

Bruce Horn on 1984, Today, and Beyond (MacTHEMES interview, Apr 2004)

Jörg Richter DeepaMehta

Current Research Teams

Doug Engelbart Bootstrap Institute Doug Engelbart Audio Glossary and Dr. Douglas Carl Enegelbart on Liquid Information

Engelbart’s Unfinished Revolution Symposion

Frode Hegland
Sarah Walton
Liquid Information
I feel that the connection, the flow, between people, information and tools need to become more liquid.

The whole point of having an interface is that we cannot directly access, manipulate or distribute information through the computer.
This is both a barrier and an opportunity.

About Mac OS X

Frode Hegland is working on a documentary Invisible Revolution - The Doug Engelbart Story

Bruce Tognazzini
Brenda Laurel
Donald Norman
Jakob Nielsen
Ask Tog
Nielsen|Norman Group
The philosophy of the NN Group is simple: To help companies enter the age of the consumer, designing human-centered products and services.
Tog on Apple

The AskTog Bug House

Austin Henderson
Jed Harris
Pliant Research A Better Mythology for System Design (commented charts, full paper)

Pliant Research is concerned with the mismatch between the rigidity of current computing technology and the richness of human lives and practices. We are exploring design stances that take advantage of digital hardware and systematic techniques, but avoid the limits of the formal approach that has dominated the design of digital systems. Our goal is to create pliant systems--flexible, resilient, and responsive--that everyone can use more effectively and comfortably, because they better fit our ways of dealing with our world.

Tim Berners-Lee
Robert Cailliau
(personal dabblings)
W3C Public Search Engine on "Robert Cailliau"

The Web and UI (email)

Semantic Web Road map Why RDF model is different from the XML model


Veltman, Kim H.: Augmented Books, Knowledge, and Culture. 2000

XML.com (archive to World Wide Web Journal)

Kai Krause Byteburg The Interface of Kai Krauses Software

Hey - where did Kai go? (Futuristic Design, Inc.)

MetaTools, MetaCreations, Meta...?